The Republic of Peru (República del Perú), is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean.
Peruvian territory was home to ancient cultures, spanning from the Norte Chico civilization, one of the oldest in the world, to the Inca Empire. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century. Peru achieved independence in 1821.
Its geography varies from the arid plains of the Pacific coast to the peaks of the Andes Mountains and the tropical forests of the Amazon Basin.
It is a developing country with a high Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 31%.
Its main economic activities include agriculture, fishing, mining, and manufacturing of products such as textiles.
The Peruvian population, estimated at 29.5 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans, and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish.
This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.